Unix

Overview of Directory Structure:

The directory structure is divided up into 6 parts

System files
System Files are stored in the /usr and / disk partitions on your system disk. They are primarily the concern of the system adminstrators (Ed, & Darla) and you should not have to worry about them. The only time these directories should be of concern to you is if they are full (100% or more). This can happen if programs dump core in the root directory. This WILL cause problems---contact a Systems Administrator right away.
Software packages
Software Packages such as IDL, terascan, S, Matlab, etc usually preside in the /local directory. We have 3 /local directories, one on the suns, one on the DEC Ultrix machines, one on the DEC Alpha's. We have some scripts that can run on any of the machines and they are located in /local/share.
User files
User home directories are in /home/user?, where ? is a number from 1 to 14. User home directories are backed up nightly. Currently user directories are for storing what you are working on, i.e., a paper you are currently writing---they are not for long term archival (Use Tapes), nor are they where data goes. Data belongs in one of the following 3 catagories:
Backed up data files
Users data directories are in /home/data?, where ? is a number from 1 to 58 (we skipped 24-29, but will fill them in with new disks). These disks are backed up once a week.
Not Backed up data files
Users data directories (THAT ARE NOT BACKED UP) are in /home/scratch?, where ? is a number from 1 to 19 or 30-35. These are good working areas with large amounts of disk space, but the user is responsible for backing up his/her own stuff.
Temporary space
Users temporary directories (THAT ARE NOT BACKED UP) are in /home/tmp?, where ? is a number from 1 to 14. The original plan was to have an automatic script that would go through and clean up old files left in tmp directories, enabling access to them at all times. Currently this plan is not implemented and they are the same as scratch directories.

 

Software Available

Mail Packages:

Editors:

Plotting Packages:

Image Processing Packages:

Mathematical Processing Software:

Text Processing:

GNU and Other Tools:

 

Frequently Asked Questions

Email Addressing Problems?

When addressing within the icess domain (icess.ucsb.edu) you may simply use the user name of the recipient.

Display Variable Problems?

You see a message similar to one of the following when running an x-window application: X-window application programs utilize the concept of the DISPLAY shell variable to determine which computer or x-terminal to send output to. If you see one of the above messages (or something similar) then try to look at the contents of the DISPLAY shell variable (use the echo command):
	daniel@slow$ echo $DISPLAY
	:0.0
	
Normally you will see the :0.0 perhaps preceeded by a machine name. If you do not then type:
	xhost +
	
on the command line. Now using the X Window Manager notice that the bottom has a message displaying:
	Your DISPLAY variable is: yourmachine.crseo.ucsb.edu:0
	
To set the DISPLAY variable simple click once with the left mouse button anywhere on the "yourmachine.crseo.ucsb.edu:0" message, then move to the shell window where you wish to set the DISPLAY. Now click once with the middle mouse button.

How to set Xterm Colors?

There is a near infinite number of options when customizing your X window environment. X.html will provide some basic information about the X window system and X client applications. Spend some time looking at the man pages for specific clients, particularly xterm.

Names of colors that are usable with most X clients are in the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt . For example,
	xterm -fg red -cr blue -ms magenta -bg black &
	
spawns a new xterm on your DISPLAY with color attributes as follows:

-fg red sets the color of the displayed text.
-cr blue sets the color of the cursor.
-ms magenta sets the color of the mouse icon.
-bg black sets the background color of the xterm.

How To Print?

How to See the Status of all Printers at Icess?

Use the lpstat -t command. For example type:
daniel@kaweah$ lpstat -t | more     (type only the text after the $)

6806:
        printer is on remote host eos with name 6806
        queuing is enabled
        printing is enabled
        no entries
        no daemon present
6816:
        printer is on remote host eos with name 6816
        queuing is enabled
        printing is enabled
        no entries
        no daemon present
6837:
        printer is on remote host eos with name 6837
        queuing is enabled
        printing is enabled
        no entries
        no daemon present
6722:
        printer is on remote host eos with name 6722
        queuing is enabled
        printing is enabled
        no entries
        no daemon present
phase:
        printer is on remote host eos with name phase
        queuing is enabled
        printing is enabled
        no entries
        no daemon present
term:
        printer is on remote host eos with name term
        queuing is enabled

	

This will show you the status of all printers at icess. Their names are given on the far left followed by the colon. These names may be used with the lpr -P command to print a file, or with the lpq -P command to stop a file from printing.

How to Stop a File From Printing (Kill a Print Job)?

Questions about the BASH shell?

 

 

Video Input/Output

Desktop page scanner

This device is an HP ScanJet II, which is a flatbed scanner attached to a Macintosh. It can scan up to 1200 dpi, but takes a few minutes to scan a page. There are two software applications to use while scanning: 1. Adobe Photoshop (to scan images) 2. DeskScan (to scan text to do OCR) Optical Character Recognition(OCR) is technology to convert an image to a text file.

35mm slide scanner (positive/negative)

This is a Kodak XXX scanner, which is scanner which will scan slides. It can scan up to about 2000dpi, generating up to a 25 megabyte file per image at 2000dpi. You can select the level of dpi from 75-2000. This scanner is also attached to a Macintosh. It will scan a slide in seconds, writing the image out to disk is the bottleneck in this process. The software to use is Adobe Photoshop.

Device to make 35mm images of slides

We don't have one of these devices. It's possible the Geography department does.

Video Tape Recording Equipment

We have a Diaquest Imagenode, which is basically a fancy 386 PC, sitting on our network, with a video controller board and an ethernet card. It is attached to a S-VHS editing tape deck. One can easily make video's of a set of images. The images can be downloaded with simple ftp commands, or best done with the Video Composer software on the Silicon Graphics machine: osprey. A videotape has 30 frames per second, so often with animations done in our lab, we will hold each image for 1/5 a second. The software has many fancy features/special effects. Please contact Ed Mehlschau to get the manuals for this software.